Biology 124 Biological Oceanography
Online Project

Studies in oceanography are no better than the equipment used, the sampling technique, and the technician him/herself. In order to gather data in the oceans, many specialized pieces of equipment have been designed and used by oceanographers. Some are very accurate and dependable and others are not. Some are very simple and some are quite complex.

Many of the most common pieces of equipment, used by oceanographers all over the world, are pictured in this lab. Study the image of each piece and read about it. Become familiar with its name and what it samples or measures. We will be using much of this equipment in subsequent labs where you will learn to operate it first-hand and gather data. By the end of the course you will be very familiar with these standard pieces of oceanographic equipment, what they sample or measure, what the sample looks like or what an average measurement is, and what oceanographers do with the sample and/or data that is obtained. This is the crux of oceanography.

This online lab exercise provides an overview and introduction to oceanographic equipment. The overview, when combined with the rest of the “hands on” labs, during the semester, will give you a comprehensive introduction to actually being an oceanographer in the field.

Commonly used Oceanographic Tools: an overview
Online Project Part One
I.  Equipment to sample and measure the marine environment
A.  Taking Samples of the Marine Environment
1. Water Samplers
• Van Dorn Bottle
• Nansen Bottle
• Niskin Bottle
• JZ Bacterialogical Bottle
• Surface Sample Bottle
2. Messengers
Most of the water samplers can be sent to a particular depth and then "triggered" to take the water sample by a "messenger". This is also the case with several other types of samplers (bottom, organism).
3. Bottom Samplers
• Ekman Grab
• Petersen Grab
• Soft Bottom Modified Petersen Grab
• Wash Bucket
• Bottom Corer
4. Animal and Plant Samplers
• Plankton: Standard Plankton Net, Deck Plankton Collector, Folsom Plankton Splitter, Sedgewick-Rafter    Plankton Counting Chamber
• Succession Plates
• Transects
• Quadrants
• Biological Dredge
• Beach Seine
• Otter Trawl
• Isaacs-Kidd Midwater Trawl

B.  Taking Measurements of the Marine Environment
1. Temperature
• Standard Thermometer
• Bucket Thermometer
• Reversing Thermometer (for Nansen Bottle)
• Bathythermograph (BT)
2. Salinity
• Hydrometer (quick test type for aquariums)
• Hydrometer Set
• Chemical Test Kit (Knudsen)
• Salinometer
3. Oxygen
• Chemical Test Kit (Winkler Titration)
• Dissolved Oxygen Probe
4. pH
• pH test strips
• Chemical Test Kit
• pH meter
5. Visibility & Color
• Secchi Disk (used by itself)
• Forel/Ule Scale (used with the Secchi disk)
6. Other
• There are chemical tests for numerous dissolved substances including Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Phosphates, Ammonia, Lead, Copper and Manganese
7. Depth & Profile
• Sounder (lead line)
• Fathometer
•Surveying Equipment
8. Currents
• Current Meter
• Dye
• Drogues
• Drift Bottles
• Drift Cards

C.  Seeing Things Better
• Dissecting Microscope • Compound Microscope
• Electron Microscope • Telescope
• Satellite • GPS and Compass

Online Project Part One Quiz:  Oceanographic Tools

Online Project Part Two
II.  Maps
A.  Maps
1. Map Projections
    • Mercator Projection
    • Polar Projection
    • Sinusoidal Projection
2: Orientation
3: Topographic Maps 4: Hydrographic Maps

Online Project Part Two Quiz:  Maps

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